# How to Track Glowing Balls in 3D

Note: I started writing this article in June 2017, because people kept asking me about details of the PS Move tracking algorithm I implemented for the video in Figure 1. But I never finished it because I couldn’t find the time to do all the measurements needed for a thorough error analysis, and also because the derivation of the linear system at the core of the algorithm really needed some explanatory diagrams, and those take a lot of work. So the article stayed on the shelf. I’m finally publishing it today, without error analysis or diagrams, because people are still asking me about details of the algorithm, more than four years after I published the video. ðŸ™‚

This one is long overdue. Back in 2015, on September 30th to be precise, I uploaded a video showing preliminary results from a surprisingly robust optical 3D tracking algorithm I had cooked up specifically to track PS Move controllers using a standard webcam (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: A video showing my PS Move tracking algorithm, and my surprised face.

During discussion of that video, I promised to write up the algorithm I used, and to release source code. But as it sometimes happens, I didn’t do either. I was just reminded of that by an email I received from one of the PS Move API developers. So, almost two years late, here is a description of the algorithm. Given that PSVR is now being sold in stores, and that PS Move controllers are more wide-spread than ever, and given that the algorithm is interesting in its own right, it might still be useful. Continue reading

# Visual Simulation of the Resolution of VR Headsets

While I was writing up my article on the PlayStation VR headset’s optical properties yesterday, and specifically when I made the example images for the sub-section about sub-pixel layout comparing RGB Stripe and PenTile RGBG displays, it occurred to me that I could use those images to create a rough and simple simulator to visually evaluate the differences between VR headsets that have different resolutions and sub-pixel layouts.

The basic idea is straightforward: Take a test image that has some pixel count, for example WxH=640×360 as the initial low-resolution full-RGB picture seen in Figure 1. If you then blow up that image to fill a monitor that has the same aspect ratio (16:9) and some diagonal size D, the resolution of that image in terms of pixels per degree depends both on D and the viewer’s distance from the monitor Y: the larger the ratio Y/D, the higher is the image’s resolution as seen by the viewer. In detail, the formula for distance Y to achieve a desired resolution R in pixels/Â° is:

`Y = (D / sqrt(W*W + H*H))/(2*tan(1/(2*R)))`

where W and H are in pixel units, R is in pixels/Â°, and D is in some arbitrary length unit (inch, meter, parsec,…). Y will end up being in the same unit as D.

If a viewer then positions one of their eyes at a distance of Y from the center of the monitor and closes the other one, the resolution of the image on the monitor will be R. In other words, if R is the known resolution of some VR headset, the image on the monitor will look the same resolution as that VR headset.

There is one caveat: when looking at a flat monitor, the resolution of the displayed image increases away from the monitor’s center, while in a VR headset, the resolution generally decreases away from the center direction (see this article for reference). Meaning, for a correct evaluation, the viewer has to focus on the area in the center of the monitor. Unfortunately there is no easy way to simulate resolution drop-off using a flat monitor, at least not while also simulating sub-pixel layout.

# Simulation Procedure

Here’s what you need to do: Continue reading

# Field of View and Resolution of the PlayStation VR Headset

It has been a very long time since I did the original optical measurement of then-current VR headsets. I have owned a PlayStation VR headset (PSVR from now on) for almost a year now, and I finally got around to measuring its optical properties in the same way. I also developed a new camera calibration algorithm (that’s a topic for another post), meaning I am even more confident in my measurements now than I was then.

One approach to measuring the optical properties of a VR headset, which includes measuring its field of view, its resolution in pixels/Â°, and its lens distortion correction profile, is to take a series of pictures of the headset’s screen(s) through its lenses using a calibrated wide-angle camera. In this context, a calibrated camera is one where each image pixel’s horizontal and vertical angles away from the optical axis are precisely known.

If one then displays a test pattern that lets one identify a particular pixel on the screen, one can measure the viewer-relative angular position of that pixel in the camera image, which is all the information needed to generate the projection matrices and lens distortion correction formulas that are essential to high-quality VR rendering.

Without further ado, here is a series of 7 images taken with the camera lens at increasing distances from the headset’s right lens (Figures 1-7, and yes, I forgot to clean my PSVR’s lens). The camera was carefully positioned and aligned such that it was sliding back along the lens’s optical axis, and looking straight ahead. The first image was captured with an eye relief value of 0mm, meaning that the camera lens was touching the headset’s lens. The rest of the images were captured with increasing eye relief values, or lens-lens distances, of 5mm, 10mm, 15mm, 20mm, 25mm, and 30mm: Continue reading

# How Does VR Create the Illusion of Reality?

I’ve recently written a loose series of articles trying to explain certain technical aspects of virtual reality, such as what the lenses in VR headsets do, or why there is some blurriness, but I haven’t — or at least haven’t in a few years — tackled the big question:

How do all the technical components of VR headsets, e.g., screens, lenses, tracking, etc., actually come together to create realistic-looking virtual environments? Specifically, why do virtual environment in VR look more “real” compared to when viewed via other media, for example panoramic video?

The reason I’m bringing this up again is that the question keeps getting asked, and that it’s really kinda hard to answer. Most attempts to answer it fall back on technical aspects, such as stereoscopy, head tracking, etc., but I find that this approach somewhat misses the point by focusing on individual components, or at least gets mired in technical details that don’t make much sense to those who have to ask the question in the first place.

I prefer to approach the question from the opposite end: not through what VR hardware produces, but instead through how the viewer perceives 3D objects and/or environments, and how either the real world on the one hand, or virtual reality displays on the other, create the appropriate visual input to support that perception.

The downside with that approach is that it doesn’t lend itself to short answers. In fact, last summer, I gave a 25 minute talk about this exact topic at the 2016 VRLA Summer Expo. It may not be news, but I haven’t linked this video from here before, and it’s probably still timely:

# 3D Camera Calibration for Mixed-Reality Recording

Mixed-reality recording, i.e., capturing a user inside of and interacting with a virtual 3D environment by embedding their real body into that virtual environment, has finally become the accepted method of demonstrating virtual reality applications through standard 2D video footage (see Figure 1 for a mixed-reality recording made in VR’s stone age). The fundamental method behind this recording technique is to create a virtual camera whose intrinsic parameters (focal length, lens distortion, …) and extrinsic parameters (position and orientation in space) exactly match those of the real camera used to film the user; to capture a virtual video stream from that virtual camera; and then to composite the virtual and real streams into a final video.

Figure 1: Ancient mixed-reality recording from inside a CAVE, captured directly on a standard video camera without any post-processing.

# Technology Transfer

I found out today that HTC now ships a tool to measure users’ inter-pupillary distances with new Vive VR headsets. When I say “tool,” I mean a booklet with instructions in many languages, and a ruler printed along one edge of each page:

Figure 1: IPD measurement chart shipped by HTC with new Vives. Image courtesy of reddit user DanielDC88, image source.

I thought this was great on multiple levels. For one, measuring the user’s IPD and entering it into the VR software, either manually or through a sensor on a physical IPD adjustment knob or slider on the headset, as in both Vive and Oculus Rift, is an important component of creating convincing VR displays. The more people get used to that, the better.

On the second level, I was proud. On April 9, 2014, I wrote an article on this here blog titled “How to Measure Your IPD,” which describes this exact method of using a mirror and a ruler. It even became one of my more popular articles (the fifth most popular article, actually, with 33,952 views as of today). I was a little less proud when I looked at my own article again just now, and realized that my diagrams were absolutely hideous compared to those in HTC’s booklet. Oh well. Continue reading

# Optical Properties of Current VR HMDs

With the first commercial version of the Oculus Rift (Rift CV1) now trickling out of warehouses, and Rift DK2, HTC Vive DK1, and Vive Pre already being in developers’ hands, it’s time for a more detailed comparison between these head-mounted displays (HMDs). In this article, I will look at these HMDs’ lenses and optics in the most objective way I can, using a calibrated fish-eye camera (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).

Figure 1: Picture from a fisheye camera, showing a checkerboard calibration target displayed on a 30″ LCD monitor.

Figure 2: Same picture as Figure 1, after rectification. The purple lines were drawn into the picture by hand to show the picture’s linearity after rectification.

Figure 3: Rectified picture from Figure 2, re-projected into stereographic projection to simplify measuring angles. Concentric purple circles indicate 5-degree increments away from the projection center point.

# On the road for VR: Oculus Connect, Hollywood

After some initial uncertainty, and accidentally raising a stink on reddit, I did manage to attend Oculus Connect last weekend after all. I guess this is what a birthday bash looks like when the feted is backed by Facebook and gets to invite 1200 of his closest friends… and yours truly! It was nice to run into old acquaintances, meet new VR geeks, and it is still an extremely weird feeling to be approached by people who introduce themselves as “fans.” There were talks and panels, but I skipped most of those to take in demos and mingle instead; after all, I can watch a talk on YouTube from home just fine. Oh, and there was also new mobile VR hardware to check out, and a big surprise. Let’s talk VR hardware. Continue reading

# An Eye-tracked Oculus Rift

I have talked many times about the importance of eye tracking for head-mounted displays, but so far, eye tracking has been limited to the very high end of the HMD spectrum. Not anymore. SensoMotoric Instruments, a company with around 20 years of experience in vision-based eye tracking hardware and software, unveiled a prototype integrating the camera-based eye tracker from their existing eye tracking glasses with an off-the-shelf Oculus Rift DK1 HMD (see Figure 1). Fortunately for me, SMI were showing their eye-tracked Rift at the 2014 Augmented World Expo, and offered to bring it up to my lab to let me have a look at it.

Figure 1: SMI’s after-market modified Oculus Rift with one 3D eye tracking camera per eye. The current tracking cameras need square cut-outs at the bottom edge of each lens to provide an unobstructed view of the user’s eyes; future versions will not require such extensive modifications.

# On the road for VR: Silicon Valley Virtual Reality Conference & Expo

I just got back from the Silicon Valley Virtual Reality Conference & Expo in the awesome Computer History Museum in Mountain View, just across the street from Google HQ. There were talks, there were round tables, there were panels (I was on a panel on non-game applications enabled by consumer VR, livestream archive here), but most importantly, there was an expo for consumer VR hardware and software. Without further ado, here are my early reports on what I saw and/or tried.

Figure 1: Main auditorium during the “60 second” lightning pitches.