The Display Resolution of Head-mounted Displays, Revisited

I wrote an article earlier this year in which I looked closely at the physical display resolution of VR headsets, measured in pixels/degree, and how that resolution changes across the field of view of a headset due to non-linear effects from tangent-space rendering and lens distortion. Unfortunately, back then I only did the analysis for the HTC Vive. In the meantime I got access to an Oculus Rift, and was able to extract the necessary raw data from it — after spending some significant effort, more on that later.

With these new results, it is time for a follow-up post where I re-create the HTC Vive graphs from the previous article with a new method that makes them easier to read, and where I compare display properties between the two main PC-based headsets. Without further ado, here are the goods.

HTC Vive

The first two figures, 1 and 2, show display resolution in pixels/°, on one horizontal and one vertical cross-section through the lens center of my Vive’s right display.

Figure 1: Display resolution in pixels/° along a horizontal line through the right display’s lens center of an HTC Vive.

Figure 2: Display resolution in pixels/° along a vertical line through the right display’s lens center of an HTC Vive.

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The Display Resolution of Head-mounted Displays

What is the real, physical, display resolution of my VR headset?

I have written a long article about the optical properties of (then-)current head-mounted displays, one about projection and distortion in wide-FoV HMDs, and another one about measuring the effective resolution of head-mounted displays, but in neither one of those have I looked into the actual display resolution, in terms of hard pixels, of those headsets. So it’s about time.

The short answer is, of course, that it depends on your model of headset. But if you happen to have an HTC Vive, then have a look at the graphs in Figures 1 and 2 (the other headsets behave in the same way, but the actual numbers differ). Those figures show display resolution, in pixels/°, along two lines (horizontal and vertical, respectively) going through the center of the right lens of my own Vive. The red, green, and blue curves show resolution for the red, green, and blue primary colors, respectively, determined this time not by my own measurements, but by analyzing the display calibration data that is measured for each individual headset at the factory and then stored in its firmware.

Figure 1: Resolution in pixels/° along a horizontal line through my Vive’s right lens center, for each of its 1080 horizontal pixels, for the three primary colors (red, green, and blue).

Figure 2: Resolution in pixels/° along a vertical line through my Vive’s right lens center, for each of its 1200 vertical pixels, for the three primary colors (red, green, and blue).

At this point you might be wondering why those graphs look so strange, but for that you’ll have to read the long answer. Before going into that, I want to throw out a single number: at the exact center of my Vive’s right lens (at pixel 492, 602), the resolution for the green color channel is 11.42 pixels/°, in both the horizontal and vertical directions. If you wanted to quote a single resolution number for a headset, that’s the one I would go with, because it’s what you get when you look at something directly ahead and far away. However, as Figures 1 and 2 clearly show, no single number can tell the whole story.

And now for the long answer. Buckle in, Trigonometry and Calculus ahead. Continue reading

Measuring the Effective Resolution of Head-mounted Displays

Why does everything in my VR headset look so pixelated? It’s supposed to be using a 2160×1200 screen, but my 1080p desktop monitor looks so much sharper!

This is yet another fundamental question about VR that pops up over and over again, and like the others I have addressed previously, it leads to interesting deeper observations. So, why do current-generation head-mounted displays appear so low-resolution?

Here’s the short answer: In VR headsets, the screen is blown up to cover a much larger area of the user’s field of vision than in desktop settings. What counts is not the total number of pixels, and especially not the display’s resolution in pixels per inch, but the resolution of the projected virtual image in pixels per degree, as measured from the viewer’s eyes. A 20″ desktop screen, when viewed from a typical distance of 30″, covers 37° of the viewer’s field of vision, diagonally. The screen (or screens) inside a modern VR headset cover a much larger area. For example, I measured the per-eye field of view of the HTC Vive as around 110°x113° under ideal conditions, or around 130° diagonally (it’s complicated), or three and a half times as much as that of the 20″ desktop monitor. Because a smaller number of pixels (1080×1200 per eye) is spread out over a much larger area, each pixel appears much bigger to the viewer.

Now for the long answer.

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VR medical visualization with 3D Visualizer

Now that Vrui is working on the HTC Vive (at least until the next SteamVR update breaks ABI again), I can finally go back and give Vrui-based applications some tender loving care. First up is 3D Visualizer, an application to visualize and, more importantly, visually analyze three-dimensional volumetric data sets (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Analyzing a CAT scan with 3D Visualizer on the HTC Vive. Cat included.

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Technology Transfer

I found out today that HTC now ships a tool to measure users’ inter-pupillary distances with new Vive VR headsets. When I say “tool,” I mean a booklet with instructions in many languages, and a ruler printed along one edge of each page:

IPD measurement chart shipped by HTC with new Vives.

Figure 1: IPD measurement chart shipped by HTC with new Vives. Image courtesy of reddit user DanielDC88, image source.

I thought this was great on multiple levels. For one, measuring the user’s IPD and entering it into the VR software, either manually or through a sensor on a physical IPD adjustment knob or slider on the headset, as in both Vive and Oculus Rift, is an important component of creating convincing VR displays. The more people get used to that, the better.

On the second level, I was proud. On April 9, 2014, I wrote an article on this here blog titled “How to Measure Your IPD,” which describes this exact method of using a mirror and a ruler. It even became one of my more popular articles (the fifth most popular article, actually, with 33,952 views as of today). I was a little less proud when I looked at my own article again just now, and realized that my diagrams were absolutely hideous compared to those in HTC’s booklet. Oh well. Continue reading

Vive la Vrui!

It has been way too long that I have publicly released a new version of the Vrui VR toolkit. The main issue was that I had been chasing evolving hardware, from the Oculus Rift DK1 to the Oculus Rift DK2, and now to HTC’s Vive. During that long stretch of time, I was never happy with the state of support of any of these devices.

That’s finally changed. I have been working on full native support for HTC’s Vive head-mounted display over the last few months (with the first major break-through in May), and I think it’s working really well. There are still a lot of improvements to make and sharp edges to sand off, but I feel it is worthwhile releasing the software as it is now to get some early testing done. So without much further ado, here is Vrui-4.2-004.

Figure 1: Vrui’s ClusterJello toy application running on an HTC Vive head-mounted display. Recorded using a second-generation Microsoft Kinect camera (Kinect-for-Xbox-One).
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Lighthouse tracking examined

To my surprise and delight, I recently found out that Valve has been releasing Linux versions of most of their SteamVR/OpenVR run-time/SDK for a while now (OpenVR just hit version 1.0.0, go get it while it’s fresh). This is great news: it will allow me to port Vrui and all Vrui applications to the Vive headset and its tracked controllers in one fell swoop.

But before diving into developing a Lighthouse tracking driver plug-in for Vrui’s input device abstraction layer, I decided to cobble together a small testing utility to get a feel for OpenVR’s internal driver interface, and for the Lighthouse tracking system’s overall tracking quality.

Figure 1: The Lighthouse 6-DOF tracking system, disassembled.

Figure 1: The Lighthouse 6-DOF tracking system, disassembled (source).

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Optical Properties of Current VR HMDs

With the first commercial version of the Oculus Rift (Rift CV1) now trickling out of warehouses, and Rift DK2, HTC Vive DK1, and Vive Pre already being in developers’ hands, it’s time for a more detailed comparison between these head-mounted displays (HMDs). In this article, I will look at these HMDs’ lenses and optics in the most objective way I can, using a calibrated fish-eye camera (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).

Figure 1: Picture from a fisheye camera, showing a checkerboard calibration target displayed on a 30" LCD monitor.

Figure 1: Picture from a fisheye camera, showing a checkerboard calibration target displayed on a 30″ LCD monitor.

Figure 2: Same picture as Figure 1, after rectification. The purple lines were drawn into the picture by hand to show the picture's linearity after rectification.

Figure 2: Same picture as Figure 1, after rectification. The purple lines were drawn into the picture by hand to show the picture’s linearity after rectification.

Figure 3: Rectified picture from Figure 2, re-projected into stereographic projection to simplify measuring angles.

Figure 3: Rectified picture from Figure 2, re-projected into stereographic projection to simplify measuring angles. Concentric purple circles indicate 5-degree increments away from the projection center point.

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On the road for VR: Redwood City, California

Last Friday I made a trek down to the San Francisco peninsula, to visit and chat with a couple of other VR folks: Cyberith, SVVR, and AltspaceVR. In the process, I also had the chance to try a couple of VR devices I hadn’t seen before.

Cyberith Virtualizer

Virtual locomotion, and its nasty side effect, simulator sickness, are a pretty persistent problem and timely topic with the arrival of consumer VR just around the corner. Many enthusiasts want to use VR to explore large virtual worlds, as in taking a stroll through the frozen tundra of Skyrim or the irradiated wasteland of Fallout, but as it turns out, that’s one of the hardest things to do right in VR.

Figure 1: Cyberith Virtualizer, driven by an experienced user (Tuncay Cakmak). Yes, you can jump and run, with some practice.

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